- 10 Most Common Types of Plagiarism & And How To Avoid It
- What is plagiarism?
- Types of plagiarism
- 1. Complete, direct, or word-for-word plagiarism
- 2. Copy-paste or verbatim plagiarism
- 3. Self-plagiarism
- 4. Accidental plagiarism
- 5. Mosaic or patchwork plagiarism
- 6. Plagiarism by paraphrasing
- 7. Sharing works or collusion
- 8. Bluffing
- 9. Citing incorrectly
- 10. Aggregator plagiarism
- What happens if you plagiarize
- How to avoid plagiarism
Once you have become a student, you will have to handle numerous academic writing tasks every day. To complete quality academic papers, a good academic writer should be aware of the major types of plagiarism. If you are able to recognize the most common types of plagiarism, you will get the idea of how to avoid them following the useful paraphrasing techniques and citing sources properly. Study plagiarism types, and you will never face any plagiarism issues; instead, you will always write 100% original content. The article provides a useful overview of the main plagiarism issues and types as well as gives some tips for avoiding it.
What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism occurs to be a major problem among college students. It is the way of presenting someone else’s work, text, or particular ideas as your own. That means you are using stolen ideas with or without of the author’s consent by adding it to your personal academic work without any full acknowledgment. Both published and unpublished content in any form, either published or in an electronic form are considered to be plagiarism. Plagiarism can be unintentional, intentional, or reckless. Intentional or reckless plagiarism is a disciplinary offense under the regulations of every learning institution.
Types of plagiarism
As far as it is impossible to avoid plagiarism issues without in-depth knowledge of the types of plagiarism, you should have a clear understanding of the plagiarism nature. Let’s have a closer look at the plagiarism types, which every professional writer should know:
1. Complete, direct, or word-for-word plagiarism
An example of completely plagiarized text is when a passage or several passages from the authorized work are directly quoted without any use of quotation marks or missing the proper quotation marks. Have a look at some examples of direct plagiarism:
Source Text: Normal science, the activity in which most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like. Much of the success of the enterprise derives from the community's willingness to defend that assumption, if necessary at considerable cost. Normal science, for example, often suppresses fundamental novelties because they are necessarily subversive of its basic commitments (5).
Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Essay Passage: Normal science, the activity in which most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like. Some scientists say that the success of the enterprise comes from the community’s willingness to defend that assumption, if necessary at considerable cost. Normal science often suppresses fundamental novelties because they are necessarily subversive of its basic commitments.
2. Copy-paste or verbatim plagiarism
Verbatim plagiarism is when the writer directly copies some parts of the authorized work and presents them as their own work. The use of the exact phrases, section, or words of another person or the company should be always presented in quotation marks and with a proper in-text citation, in accordance with the paper format and conventions used in the particular discipline. Here are some examples of copy-paste plagiarism:
Source Text: Your research paper presents your thinking about a topic, supported and developed by other people’s ideas and information. It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism.
McLean, S., & Horkoff, T. (n.d.). Chapter 9.Citations and Referencing. Retrieved from opentextbc
Essay Passage: Your research paper presents your thinking about a topic, supported and developed by other people’s ideas and information. It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism.
It is one of the plagiarism types in which the writer reuses some portions of their own previously written work or republishes content in its entirety while authoring a new piece of writing.
Here are some examples of self-plagiarism:
- Inserting sections or phrases more than four words long from previously submitted research into a new paper.
- Handing some new parts in a paper which has already been submitted in another discipline.
- Reusing gathered data or particular ideas from the bachelor's thesis to the master's thesis, forgetting to cite the original work.
4. Accidental plagiarism
Accidental is another common type of plagiarism among students. It occurs in several cases:
- a student neglects to cite all sources;
- misquotes the used sources;
- unintentionally paraphrases with similar words as they were used in the source;
- groups the words without attribution;
- uses sentence structure without attribution.
Source Text: Trying to avoid the problem only makes it worse, Davis said…
Essay Passage: “Trying to avoid the problem only makes it worse,” Davis (2013) said, but I don't want to face the objections of my committee members indeed. (Quotations should be after said, as it is a part of the authorized text indeed)
5. Mosaic or patchwork plagiarism
This type of plagiarism occurs when the writer copies phrases, sections, and ideas from different sources and puts them together in order to create personalized content. In other words, mosaic plagiarism is a kind of slight rephrasing of the passages while keeping a lot of similar words and the original structure. For example:
Source Text: The necessity to acknowledge others’ work or ideas applies not only to text, but also to other media, such as computer code, illustrations, graphs etc. It applies equally to published text and data drawn from books and journals, and to unpublished text and data, whether from lectures, theses or other students’ essays. You must also attribute text, data, or other resources downloaded from websites.
McLean, S., & Horkoff, T. (n.d.). Chapter 9.Citations and Referencing. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from opentextbc
Essay Passage: The necessity to acknowledge the work or ideas of the others applies not only to text, but also to other media, involving computer code, graphs, illustrations, etc. It is similar to the published text and data from books and journals, and also to unpublished text and data from lectures, theses or the other essays of the students. The one must also attribute text, data, and other resources downloaded from websites.
6. Plagiarism by paraphrasing
Paraphrasing refers to the ability to take the text of another source and restate it using one's own vocabulary. As a result of such procedure, the writer keeps the meaning of the original text but does not copy the exact wording of the original source. However, weak paraphrasing leads to plagiarism, as in the following example:
Source Text: Carefully organizing your time and notes is the best guard against these forms of plagiarism.
Essay Passage: Careful organization of both, time and notes, occurs to be the leading guard against aforementioned types of plagiarism. (In-text citation is missing)
7. Sharing works or collusion
Collusion occurs when a group of people produces particular writing; however, composing the same piece of work by each team member leads to plagiarism. For instance, when you collaborated with another student in order to produce notes to the speech and then submitted them as a basis for your part, it is considered plagiarism. It also happens when a student gives their work to another student to present it as their own.
Plagiarism caused by bluffing is falsification, which involves stealing ideas from academic journals or books by noting key arguments. For example:
Source Text: You maintain your integrity as a member of an academic community by representing your work and others’ work honestly and by using other people’s work only in legitimately accepted ways. It is a point of honour taken seriously in every academic discipline and career field.
Essay Passage: Integrity in academic disciplines and academic community is reviewed by honest representation of both personal articles and the others’ works.
9. Citing incorrectly
If you accidentally failed to cite the used sources correctly, it is still a kind of plagiarism that is not acceptable.
Leibowitz found that patients with Type II diabetes get the opportunity to get a healthy weight and succeed in controlling blood sugar levels thanks to low-carbohydrate diets. (There should be mentioned a publication (year) after the author name)
10. Aggregator plagiarism
In case of the aggregator plagiarism the work is cited properly, but the whole paper consists of someone’s ideas making the paper unoriginal.
Source Text: Yosemite Valley was first sighted by non-Indian sin 1833 by mid-nineteenth century,Yosemite Valley has held a special, Joseph Rutherford Walker and his group of explorers.Yosemite has a long and diverse cultural history that helped to beauty makes it an incomparable valley and one of the shape the region, country,and even the world.
Essay Passage: Since its first discovery by non-indigenous people in the Yosemite Valley was first sighted by non-Indians in 1833 by mid-nineteenth century, Yosemite Valley has held a special, Joseph Rutherford Walker and his group of explorers. Even religious, hold on the American conscience because its Yosemite has a long and diverse cultural history that helped to make it an incomparable valley and one that shaped the region, country,and even the world.
What happens if you plagiarize
Plagiarism is a serious issue, which should be avoided in academic writing. It has a number of serious consequences depending on its level. They are:
- Expulsion from class, course, college, university, or other academic institution
- Destroying a student's work
- Legal actions, fines, penalties.
How to avoid plagiarism
To avoid plagiarism you should keep in mind the useful tips listed below:
- Paraphrase properly
- Always cite your source
- Plan your writing
- Take notes effectively
- Use plagiarism checker to detect plagiarism before submission
- Properly cite all the borrowed ideas
- Remember about changing words from original source
When plagiarism occurs, the reader stops to perceive your work seriously, even if it is not a deliberate plagiarism that occurred unintentionally. Therefore, all of the ideas expressed in your piece of writing should be original or correctly cited, otherwise dishonest plagiarism will be considered a crime because you did not follow the authorship rights. Intentional document copying without citing the sources used in the paper may lead to permanent expulsion. Get 100% original papers written by our experts and receive the top grades!